Unit 5: Grammar and Functions - بەشی ٥: ڕێزمان و ئەرکەکان


 Sunrise 12

Grammar & Functions 

UNIT 5: 

Page 32: B- Ways of comparing quantities

ڕێگاکانی بەراوردکردنی بڕەکان                                                                                          

  %= percent, 25% = twenty five percent, 15% = fifteen percent

1X = once, 2X = twice, 3X = three times, 22X = twenty two times

½ = half, ¼ = a quarter, ¾ = Three quarters, 1/3 = a third, 1/8 = an eighth,

      1/22 = a twenty second, 2/4= half, 3/5 = three fifths, 5/9 = five ninths,

      7/22 = seven twenty seconds + [of]

 

تێبینی: ئەو وشانەی خوارەوە دەکرێت لەپێش بڕەکان بەکار بهێندرێن:

 [nearly, about, approximately, roughly, exactly, over, more than, less than]

e.g:

1. 20% of the students have got new books. Which means: [a/b]

- 1/5 a fifth

2. ¼ of the protesters were imprisoned.[ ¼ ] is………….

-  a quarter

3. The company has ¾ of the shares. Which means: [%]

-  75% seventy five per cent

4. Grassland covers 26%, but Farmland covers 13% of productive land. It means Grassland is [2X] larger than Farmland. [2X] means:……

-  twice

5. Write the following quantities:

- 4/5 = four fifths, 1/10 = a tenth, 3/7 = three sevenths,

- 33% = thirty three percent, 33.5% = thirty three point five percent

- 1X = once, 12X = twelve times

♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣

داهاتووی ســـادە، ڕانــەبردووی سادە + ئامرازی لێکدەر                  

Page 33: E- Conjunction + Present Simple, Future Simple.

 

                             ڕووداوی دووەم                 ڕووداوی یەکەم    

1. After           +    [  S. + base(s)……..], [ S. + will (n’t) + infinitive……. ]

    When

    As

    As soon as

   Soon after

    If

                           ڕووداوی یەکەم                 ڕووداوی دووەم

2. Before +  [  S. + base(s)……..], [ S. + will (n’t) + infinitive……. ]

 

                 ڕووداوی دووەم                                         ڕووداوی یەکەم

3. [ S. + will (n’t) + infinitive……. ]+ until/till +  [  S. + base(s)……..]

 

e.g:

1. I will leave school. I will go home. Use: after

- After I leave school, I will go home.

2. You’ll start your homework. You’ll get home. join with (when)

- When you get home, you’ll start your homework.

3. After the water turns salty, farming will disappear. Before………

- Before farming disappears, the water will turn salty.

4. I will wait here. the bus will arrive. Join, use (until)

- I will wait here until the bus arrives.

5. The plant cover disappears. Farming becomes impossible. (Use: after)

- After the plant cover disappears, farming will become impossible.

6. After the water turns salty, farming………….. . (disappear)

- will diappear

7. When that happens, the rain…………….. .  (The correct tense of the verb “stop”)

-  will stop

8. The plant cover disappears. Farming becomes impossible. (Use: after)

- After the plant cover disappears, farming will become impossible.

9. As they listen carefully, they (get) the information completely.  

–will get 

♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣

Conjunctions with Past tenses:

ئامرازی لێکدەر لەگەڵ دەمی ڕابردوودا

 

                                                            ڕووداوی دووەم                       ڕووداوی یەکەم                            

1. After          +  [  S. + had + PP……..], [ S. + V(past)……. ]

    As soon as                V(past)

    Soon after

 

                                                                     ڕووداوی یەکەم                 ڕووداوی دووەم                           

2. Before +  [  S. + V(past)……..], [ S. + had + PP……. ]

                                                                    V(past)

 

                                                            ڕووداوی دووەم                       ڕووداوی یەکەم                              

1. While    +  [  S. + was/were + Ving……..], [ S. + V(past)……. ]

    When                    V(past)

    As

 

e.g:

1. I visited Central Park. I had finished preparing for the conference. Use: after

- After I had finished preparing for the conference, I visited Central Park.

2. I took some photos. I was walking around the park. Join with (while)

- While I was walking around the park, I took some photos.

3. I had finished the presentation. Two organizers asked me to join a discussion. Soon after….

- Soon after I had finished the presentation, two organizers asked me to join a discussion.

4. We had a great view of the Statue of Liberty. We sailed across to Staten Island. (As)

- As we sailed across to Staten Island, we had a great view of the Statue of Liberty.

5. It was getting dark. We reached the Empire State Building. Use: when

- When it was getting dark, we reached the Empire State Building.

 

* Use the correct form of the verbs between the brackets:

  1. After he (write) his homework, he went out.

  – wrote / had written

  2. While we (cross) the river, we saw the crocodile.

   – were crossing

  3. When I met him, he (type) the report.

   – had typed / was typing 

♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣


Page 35: B- Forms of conditional statements

شێوازەکانی ڕستەی مەرجی

 

1.   

      (NON-)Necessity-  S  +  should (not) have     + PP………..(نا-) پێویستی                 

                                                ought (not) to have

 

     Probablity- S  + could (n’t) have     + PP…………….ئەگەر                                     

                                  might (n’t) have

 

e.g.

1. John didn’t study hard. Use conditional form.

- You should have studied hard.

2. The students lost the game. Form a conditional, use: could have and (play well)

- The students couldn’t have played well.

3. Say something that you think you should have done.  

- I should have visited my sick friend.

4. Mention something that you feel you shouldn’t have done.

- I shouldn’t have watched tv too much.  

♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣♣

 

2.

                                         ڕووداوی دووەم             ڕووی یەکەم   

First conditional: If + [  S. + base(s)….], [ S. + will (n’t) + infinitive… ]

[if=as long as]

 

Second conditional: If + [  S. +V(past)….], [ S. + would (n’t) + infinitive… ]

                                                                                    could

                                                                                     might

  

Third conditional: If (only) + [  S. + had + PP….], [ S. + would have + PP… ]

                                                                                                could

                                                                                                 might

 

تێبینی:

- ئەگەر ئەو دەستەواژانە هەبوون لەکاتی بەکارهێنانی if/as long as نانوسرێنەوە:

[need to, want to, try to, wish to, or, but, however, and, nor, either, neither] 

- لەکاتی بەکارهێنانی as long as هەوڵ بدە هیچ یەکێ لە ڕستەکان نەرێ نەبن، ئەگەر مانایەکە تەواو دەرچوو.

 

1. If you listen to me, you (not make) so many mistakes.

- will not make

2. We need to have good weather, or the trees will not produce good fruit. Use: if….not

- If we don’t have good weather, the trees will not produce good fruit.

3. The farmers use better techniques. They avoid the disaster. Use (if) for third conditional

- If the farmers had used better techniques, they could have avoided the disaster.

4. We started soon. It was really the answer.  (Use: if)

- If we started soon, it would be really the answer.

5. If the students had studied harder, they (get) higher marks.

- could have got

6. If you (come) early, I would help you with your work. 

- came

7. As long……….we look after our land well, it will be productive. (Use: as, to, for)

- as

8. To do well, you need to try harder. (Use: as long as)

- As long as you try harder, you do well.

9. If they don’t finish earlier, they won’t have the chance to visit the museum. (Use: as long as)

- As long as they finish earlier, they will have the chance to visit the museum.

-----

تێبینی

هەرکاتێک دوو ڕستە بە if/as long as  بەیەکەوە بەسترابوون وە داواکرا unless  بەکاربێت، ئەوا پێویستە یەکێک لە ڕستەکان(بەزۆری ڕستەی دووەمیان)  بگوڕدرێت بۆ نەرێ یان نەرێ نەمێنێت (ئەگەر نەرێ بوو)، وە بە پێچەوانەشەوە.

1. If you don’t study hard, you won’t succeed. (use: unless)

- If you study hard, you won’t succeed.

2. Unless you give these plants more water, they won’t grow well. (Use: as long as)

  - As long as you give these plants more water, they will grow well.

3. As long as you protect your vegetables, they will not be attacked by diseases. Use (unless)

- Unless you protect your vegetables, they will be attacked by diseases.

4. Unless they drive me to the party, I won’t promise to go. (use: If)

- If they don’t drive me to the party, I won’t promise to go.

پێشتر         سەرەکی            دواتر


Date:8/21/2013 3:12:00 PM | بینراوە (4974) } Posted by: Twana Rasul